Psychedelic; phosphorylated psilocin derivative; indole tryptamine derivative. Psilocin and psilocybin are solid substances that decompose when heated near the melting point. Psilocybin melts at 173-176C. They are found in mushrooms of the genus psilocybe.
It was first synthesized in pure form in 1958 by Albert Hofmann. The effects of psilocybin are comparable to a short-lived LSD trip with minor differences (in amateur circles, the effect of psilocybin subjectively shows increased emotionality and greater “naturalness” of sensations compared to LSD, as well as, sometimes, the “sacredness” of the experiences received). The effect of psilocybin lasts approximately 4-7 hours.
Presumably, psilocin, formed in the intestine during dephosphorylation of psilocybin, acts on serotonin receptors.
Chemical dependence is not formed. Neither psilocybin nor psilocin cause addiction and addiction, such as opiates, nicotine or alcohol. Psychological dependence may form.
Psilocybin and psilocin, like other tryptamines, are not a strong toxic substance. The lethal dose at which 50% of experimental animals die is 285 milligrams per kilogram of weight for psilocybin for mice and 12.5 mg/kg for rabbits. If we compare the interpolated lethal dose for a person with the usual dose, then their ratio is 641, that is, the average lethal dose is 641 times greater than the average effective dose. For example, we can give similar ratios for other substances: vitamin A – 9637, LSD – 4816, aspirin – 199, nicotine – 21. There is no known case of death caused by the use of mushrooms or synthetic psilocybin. In a number of doubtful cases, death occurred due to the use of other highly toxic substances together with mushrooms. There are also cases of poisoning, including lethal ones, by poisonous mushrooms, which have an external resemblance to some hallucinogenic mushrooms. Therefore, special care should be taken when collecting mushrooms. A common mistake of beginners is to pick mushrooms growing on stumps — psilocybe semilanceata never grows there! For the first time, it is recommended to go with an experienced person who knows and knows how to show how to distinguish psilocybe semilanceata from other mushrooms.
The duration of action of psilocybin is 4-7 hours.
In addition to mushrooms from the genus Psilocybe, the substance psilocybin has been found in some species of fungi from the genera Panaeolus, Stropharia and Anellaria.
Psilocybe mexicana mushrooms are traditionally consumed by Mexican Indians. They usually eat from 10 to 15 mushrooms, which, like peyote, have an unpleasant pungent smell. The effect of psilocybin usually lasts for 5-7 hours. External manifestations- nausea and vomiting.
Psilocybin is derived from Psilocyba Mexicana, a small mushroom that grows in moist pastures.
The psilocybin group includes drugs:
R1= H, R2=OH, R3= CH3 – psilocin
R1=H, R2=[HPO4], R3=CH3 – psilocybin
Psychotropic substances are also found in other fungi, such as: Conocybe sihdinoides, Psilocybe aztecorum, P. Zapotecorum, P. Caerulescens, Strophana cubenis.
Tryptamines of this group are resistant to MAO, and therefore effective when ingested. The usual dose is 15-25 mg (from 15 to 30 Psilocybe semilanceata mushrooms, depending on the place and time of collection). It is also possible to smoke psilocybin powder mixed with tobacco or marijuana.
The duration of action of psilocybin is 4-7 hours