Fentanyl – opioid analgesic, actively used in anesthesiology. With long-term reception, it forms a resistant dependence.
The substance affects the nervous system mainly, but also causes negative consequences for the entire body as a whole.
Fentanyl is a small crystalline white powder having a chemical formula: C22H28N2O. Active substance – fentanyl citrate.
Available in the form of a white crystalline powder and solutions for injection. Powder does not dissolve in water and poorly dissolved in alcohol.
History of the appearance of fentanyl substance
Fentanyl was synthesized in 1959 by Paul Jansen. In the 1960s, the substance was sent to the pharmaceutical market as a strong anesthetic. A substance was produced in ampoules for intravenous administration.
In the 1990s, a fentanyl-based plaster appeared on the market. It was used to facilitate point pain, for example, in injuries. At the same time, scientists and doctors have noticed the negative impact of the substance on the body. In patients with which the drug was introduced for several weeks, dependence with abstinence after canceling treatment. This was the reason for the restriction on the spread of a substance, in some countries, already at the beginning of the 21st century, a ban on the use of fentanyl was established.
Fentanyl is a powerful painkiller. Morphine and heroin are inferior to it in action. The substance is actively used in medicine as an analgesic. But it is prescribed to those patients who have already taken opiate analgesics for indications.
Fentanyl is prescribed:
-before surgical interventions on the abdominal organs;
-in the postoperative period;
-to relieve pain in cancer.
The substance is not prescribed for the purpose of relieving ordinary pain (for example, with migraines or high blood pressure). Its use is strictly controlled to prevent unauthorized use.
Using fentanyl without a doctor’s prescription is life-threatening. The most likely consequence is the development of addiction.
Signs of fentanyl use
The use of fentanyl for non-medical purposes is manifested by symptoms:
-constriction of pupils that do not respond to light;
-high spirits, gratuitous fun;
-speech disorders, many words are pronounced with difficulty;
-causeless fatigue, drowsiness;
-lack or decreased appetite;
-traces of injections;
-apathy and lethargy.
Signs of drug use fentanyl depends on the stage. Within 3-4 hours after the adoption of the dose, there is an increase in mood, undefree laughter, joy on trifles. After the end of the drug, apathy, depressed mood, depression comes. Possible development of psychosis.
Influence on the body
The substance excites the opiate receptors of the central nervous system and increases the pain threshold. When used in medicine, the action occurs within 5 minutes. The pain is completely stopped, regardless of localization and intensity. Repeated dose is not required.
A similar effect occurs when substance abuse. Only gradually the addict is developing tolerance to the substance, which leads to an increase in the dosage.